Seagrass and Soft-Bottom Ecosystems

Seagrass ecosystems comprise of aquatic flowering plants that can live in seawater. These types of ecosystems occur in shallow water environments. 

Primarily, seagrass supports biodiversity by functioning as a food source for grazing and detritus-feeding creatures. They can also be a nursery for

Freshwater Ecosystem

Freshwater ecosystems occur in in-land bodies of water and may either be flowing, standing, or man-made. Rivers and streams, lakes and reservoirs, and artificial fishponds are examples that fall into the three respective categories. All of these are distinguished by low-salinity water that flow from

Coral Reef Ecosystem

Whereas forests are a distinctive feature of the Philippines’s terrestrial biodiversity, coral reefs give the country a likewise sterling reputation when it comes to aquatic ecosystems. Owning 5% of the world’s total 617,000 sq km of coral reefs, the Philippines is part of the world’s “Coral

Urban Ecosystem

Urban ecosystems are the product of modernized, industrialized human society. These function as the base of human settlements, as well as economic development. They are a testament to the economic, academic, and technological progress that humankind has achieved through generations. That said, they

Marginal Ecosystem

Marginal ecosystems are those that are located between two ecosystems. These can be either natural or artificial, such as areas adapted or reappropriated for agricultural use. Marginal lands now comprise about 70% (over 11 million hectares) of declared forest area in the Philippines.

Agricultural Ecosystem

Agricultural ecosystems are artificial ecosystems created in the process of developing land and coastal/aquatic areas for farming, animal husbandry, and fishing.

Since agriculture evolved to bring about gains for human societies, it follows that people have continued to draw numerous benefits

Forest Ecosystem

Forests are inherently diverse ecosystems, as conditions found within them are ideal for supporting symbiotic ecological relationships. This is especially so in the Philippines, where the tropical climate allows forests to receive, absorb, and redistribute rainwater to support life not only within


Another prominent type of ecosystem that naturally occurs in the Philippines, given the multitude of coastal areas of this country, is the mangrove ecosystem. Mangroves are medium-size and highly tolerant flora that can survive in brackish water (water which is more saline than freshwater, but not