Gunung Leuser National Park - Core of Sumatra's Tropical Rainforest Heritage

Year of Declaration:  1984
Area (hectares): 1,095
Area and Location:

North Sumatra and Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam (Southeast Aceh, South Aceh, Aceh Singkil) and Regency of Langkat, Indonesia.



The Park consists of steep, almost inaccessible mountainous terrain; part of the 2.5 million hectare Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra, which is a World Heritage Site; encompasses smaller nature reserves and Alas River runs through the Park into an eastern and western half; last place where orangutans, tigers , elephants, rhinoceros and leopards live together. 


Habitat Types:

Lowland evergreen dipterocarp forest;  lower and upper montane forest; peat swamp; forest over limestone, sub-alpine meadows and heathlands; freshwater lakes and rivers; and sulphur mineral pools. 


Unique Flora:

World’s tallest flower: Amorphophallus titanium (when flowering), A. gigas (non-flowering phase); the world’s largest flower: Rafflesia (rafflesia arnoldi);  Daunpayung raksasa (Johannesteijsmannia altifrons);  Rhizanthes zippelnii. 


Unique Fauna:

Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis); Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris); Asian elephant (Elephas maximus); white breasted Thomas leaf monkey (Presbytis thomasi); siamang(Symphalangus syndactylus), Sumatran ground cuckoo (Carpacoccyx  viridis); and white bellied sea eagle (Haliaetusleo cogaster).


Ecotourism Destination and Activities:

Different ethnic groups using natural resources such as wood, dammar, rattan and fish for income; wildlife ecotourism activities like wildlife viewing, jungle trekking, river rafting, caving and horseback riding; mountain climbing and trekking; other activities like kayaking, and canoeing. 


Biological Richness: • 4,000 species of flora
• 129 species of mammals
• 10,000 species of plants
• 380 species of birds
• 103 species of reptiles
• 35 species of amphibians