National Target 12 is a manifestation of the Government of Indonesia’s commitment to support the vision of 'Realizing a beautiful and sustainable Indonesia' - the sixth out of eight visions in the National Long Term Development Plan (RPJPN) for 2005-2025 (KemenPPN/BAPPENAS, 2016, p.2).
Biodiversity encompasses the entirety of life on Earth, which consists of various levels, ranging from genetics, species to ecosystems. The entire levels, be it in the terrestrial or marine ecosystem, interact and influence each other in one shared environment. Each component in the ecosystem plays specific roles and functions; therefore, the loss of species may adversely impact the ecosystem.
As of 2014, 14 (fourteen) animal species have been defined as endangered. The Government has determined 25 priority endangered animal species (terrestrial) for national conservation with a target of 10% increase of their population in the monitoring location until 2019, which is benchmarked from 2013 baseline data (DJKSDAE-KLHK, 2015, p.46). Meanwhile, conservation efforts for marine biota diversity are made with the commitment of Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries to expand the number of species under the list of protected and preserved marine biodiversity species to 20 species cumulatively by 2019 (KKP, 2017, p.96). Some steps taken are optimizing the management of conservation areas, improving the quality of biodiversity data and information, and increasing the utilization of economic values of biodiversity and environmental services. Other steps taken are breeding efforts at conservation institutions and semi-natural animal sanctuaries within conservation areas.