National Target 14 is to ensure the improvement of integrated ecosystem functions to provide important services, such as water supply, health, livelihoods and tourism. In order to achieve National Target 14, the action plan for maintaining and preserving biodiversity is formulated through various activity groups (KemenPPN/BAPPENAS, 2016, p. 246). The National Target 14 is prepared to comply with the Aichi Target (AT) 14 framework as a reference for formulating a number of action plans and activity programs that have been adapted to national conditions and needs. Activity groups in this action plan (DJKSDAE-KLHK, 2015; KemenKP, 2017; Ministry of Agriculture, 2016) include:
§ Utilization of conservation area environmental services,
§ Development of ecotourism attraction,
§ Management and conservation of reservoirs, retention basins, lakes, and other water storage structures,
§ Management and development of essential ecosystem areas,
§ Utilization of coastal areas, oceans, and small islands,
§ Increasing production and productivity of environmental-friendly agricultural products,
§ Increasing production and productivity of sustainable plantation crops,
§ Development of marine and fisheries products and product processing businesses.
Preservation of ecosystems inside or outside of conservation areas may provide important ecosystem services for the survival of human life. In order to maintain or even increase such availability, utilization and maintenance of ecosystem services, the following are needed:
§ Management and utilization of ecosystem services by the government and the private sector through a permit mechanism taking into account the limitation of the capacity of ecosystems so that the function ecosystem services is maintained (DJKSDAE-KLHK, 2015; Kemen KP, 2017).
§ Ecosystem restoration efforts to improve ecosystem functions through participatory actions (DJKSDAE-KLHK, 2015; Kemen KP, 2017).
§ Development of biodiversity conservation areas and the area outside of conservation areas to provide various types of ecosystem services. From economic and social perspectives, both biodiversity conservation areas and the area outside of conservation areas possess high economic value (DJKSDAE-KLHK, 2015).