Governments use positive and negative incentives, such as subsidies and taxes, to influence outcomes such as the level of investment in certain sectors, for public policy purposes. Subsidies can create a positive incentive resulting in an increase in production and supply relative to demand, while certain taxes can create a negative incentive decreasing production and supply relative to demand. Depending on the incentive structures chosen, incentives can be used to undermine or promote environmentally sustainable practices. Incentive structures in resource management can also be heavily affected by property rights, which are intrinsically linked to decisions on management for sustainability or short term gain, and explicit recognition of the non market economic value of ecosystems through valuation of ecosystem services and implementation of payments for economic services schemes.
3.2 By 2020, positive incentives are established for the sustainable use of nature