Mt. Makiling Forest Reserve

Year of Declaration:  2013
Area (hectares): 4244
Area and Location:

Lies within the municipalities of Los banos, Bay and Calamba in the province of Laguna and Sto. Tomas town in the rprovince of Batangas, located about 65 km. from Metro Manila; spans a total of 4244 hectares (



Recognized by FAO as an "exemplary Forest Management in Asia", Mt. Makiling Forest Reserve embodies a variety of ecosystems and species. It has a rich biological diversity with many endemic, indigenous and introduced exotic species.


Habitat Types:

It has dipterocarp and Leguminosae to mossy forests. > About four types of
vegetation are recognized in Mt. Makiling based
on altitude: upper montane rain forest (above 1000
m), lower montane rain forest (above 750 m),
lowland evergreen rain forest (100 – 500 m), and
Parang vegetation consisting of a mixture of
grassland and second-growth forest


Unique Flora:

Mt. Makiling contains diverse flora from a large number of endemic species as well as introduced species from other parts of the world. Species such as Rafflesia manillana, Medinilla magnifica and Nepethes alata are found in the area 


Unique Fauna:

Among the rare species found in the area are the Philippine Eagle-Owl (Bubo philippinensis) and the Philippine pgymy fruit bat (Haplonycteris fisceri) which are both endemic in the country and are highly restricted to the original rainforest habitats. In addtion, Calotes mamoratus or Philippine calotes and amphibian, Phuilautus surdus were also recorded, considered in IUCN Red List as threatened species.


Ecotourism Destination and Activities:

It serves as a training laboratory for instruction, research and extension. Through the Rep. Act 3523, the Makiling Botanic Gardens supports the professional instruction and research related to forestry and plant sciences and  to serve the educational, recreational and tourism needs of the general public. The reserve where hot springs, builing mud and unique landscapeds are sighted is also a recreational area to the general public being close to Metro Manila. Frequently visited sites are Makiling Botanic Gardens, Flatrpcks, mudspring, rainforest and the summit.


Biological Richness: Among its flora, the forest reserve is home to about 940 genera, 2038 species, 19 sub-species, 167  varieties and several forms and cultivars representing 225 families of flowering plants and ferns