The Fourth National Report to CBD is a report on the implementation of articles and programmes of work of the Convention on Biological Biodiversity (CBD) at the national level. The report was prepared following the guidelines provided by the Secretariat of the CBD (SCBD). This report consists of four chapters.
Chapter I is a review of status and trends of, and major threats to biodiversity. This chapter provides an analysis of the conditions of biodiversity in Indonesia at the levels of species, genetic and ecosystem diversity. In the case of species diversity, the number of floral species known in Indonesia is ranked among the big five of diversity-rich countries in the world. Of the entire concerned species, 55% of floras found in Indonesia are endemic. For the diversity of fauna, about 12% of mammals (515 species) in the world are found in Indonesia.
At the ecosystem level, conservation is carried out through the establishment of conservation areas which serve as places for protection and preservation of biodiversity, such as biosphere reserves, wildlife sanctuaries, national parks, ecotourism parks, forest parks and hunting parks. Coverage of these areas was increased to 27.968 million ha in 2007, compared to 7.628 million ha in 1981.
In the efforts of ex-situ conservation, there was an increase in the number of floras and faunas being bred in captivity from 171 species in 2006 to 416 species in 2008. Of those captive breeding activities in the year of 2008, 383 of them were for protected floras and faunas.
Some threats to biodiversity in Indonesia include: high population growth rate, deforestation, forest and land fires, habitat degradation and fragmentation, consumption/over-exploitation, pollution, and climate change.
Status of Indonesian Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (IBSAP) is described in Chapter II. Given that the targets, goals, and indicators included in IBSAP 2003-2020 had been prepared before the 2010 target framework was adopted at COP 7 (decision VII/30) in 2004, so the content in IBSAP did not entirely refer to the 2010 target framework. However, some indicators in the IBSAP are consistent with
some global indicators such as those prepared by SCBD and the Strategic Plan of the Convention. Some IBSAP programs have been associated with the articles of the Convention on Biological Diversity (UNCBD) and contributed to the implementation of the thematic programs of work and cross-cutting issues of CBD.
Chapter III provides information on mainstreaming of biodiversity into sectoral and cross-sectoral plans, programs and policies. Indonesia has adopted the 2003-2020 Indonesian Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (IBSAP) which is a revised version of the 2003 Biodiversity Action Plan for Indonesia (BAPI). Mainstreaming of Biodiversity has been carried out through integration into the Indonesia National Long-term Development Planning/RPJPN (2005-2025). The mission of RPJPN has taken into consideration the sustainable use of biodiversity.
Mainstreaming of biodiversity considerations has been started especially by those sectors that have direct relevance with management of natural resources and biodiversity, including through the 2005-2009 Sectoral Strategic Plans of the Ministry of Marine and Fisheries, the Ministry of Forestry, Agency for Agriculture Research and Development under the Ministry of Agriculture, and Research Center for
Biology- Indonesian Institute of Sciences.
Biodiversity considerations have also been integrated into the administration of local governments, by establishing a conservation agency. To date, the Conservation Districts have been established including for District of Kapuas Hulu, District of Malinau, District of Kuningan, and District of Pasir. Biodiversity has also been integrated into some broader national strategies and programs, such as strategies for
achieving the MDGs, PNPM Mandiri (National Program on Community Empowerment), Action Plan for implementing UNFCCC, and the 2004 Indonesian Strategy and Action Plan for Wetland Management.
Biodiversity is also incorporated into environmental impact assessment, strategic environmental assessment, and relevant incentives.
Chapter IV reviews on progress towards the 2010 Target and implementation of the Strategic Plan of the Convention. Data availability is a key factor for determining indicators in achieving the 2010 target. In 2008, Indonesia just carried out data and information collection that can be used to assess the 2010 target achievement by using indicators that have been agreed. Data and information collected were those from the period 2003-2008 and it was considered as the preliminary data that need to be updated in the years to come.
For these reasons, results of the assessment of the achievement of the 2010 target described only efforts made to achieve these targets. Some targets were set at the national level for achieving the 2010 target, but no targets specifically referred to the 2010 target framework. An achievable national target is to increase marine conservation area from 4.7 million ha in 2003 to 10 million ha in 2010 and then be
expanded to 20 million ha in 2020.
National targets for achieving the Strategic Plan of the Convention have not yet been determined, albeit there were fourteen national programs already implemented which can support the achievement of these targets.
The Fourth National Report also identifies some obstacles in the implementation of the Convention, including lack of stakeholders’ support to implement the Convention of Biological Diversity; lack of communication and coordination among stakeholders (particularly at local levels), lack of mechanisms to ensure that sectoral programs and action plans can contribute to the implementation of the Convention;
lack of stakeholders’ awareness in the implementation of Convention on Biological Diversity; and inadequate efforts to monitor and to integrate data and information that can be used for policy making in the implementation of the Convention.
Knowing of those constraints is a necessary step to improve capacities, among others by : establishing a mechanism to ensure that sectoral programs and action plans are in line with the implementation of the Convention; raising awareness and improving knowledge of stakeholders about the Convention and its programmes of work; mainstreaming the Convention and its programmes of work from national level to local levels (Provincial and Regencies/Cities); strengthening regional cooperation mechanisms as well as Indtraining and exchange of experience among the Parties of the Convention.