National Target 18: Development of local wisdom and innovations as well as bioprospecting capacity building for the conservation and sustainable utilization of biodiversity
Indonesia has very diverse ethnics, cultures and biodiversity. Every ethnic group has a diversity of traditional knowledge related to the use and management of biodiversity, as a source of food, medicinal ingredients and various materials needed for people’s livelihood. Various Indonesian cultures possess local wisdom that has been proven to be able to preserve various biodiversity. Local wisdom is a noble value that governs the order of life within the community, one of the purposes is to protect and manage the environment sustainably. (Ministry of Home Affairs Regulation No. 52 Year 2014 concerning Guidelines for Recognition and Protection of Customary (Adat) Law Communities; Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries Regulation (PermenKP) No. 40 Year 2014 concerning People’s Participation and Communities Empowerment in Coastal Areas and Small Islands; PermenKP No. 08 Year 2018 concerning Procedures on Determining Management Area for Adat Law Communities for Space Utilization in Coastal and Small Islands Areas; Ministry of Environment and Forestry Regulation (PermenLHK) No. 34/MenLHK/Sekjen/Kum.1/5/2017 concerning Recognition and Protection of Local Knowledge; PermenLHK No. P.43/MenLHK/Setjen/Kum.1/6/2017 concerning Community Empowerment Around Sanctuary Reserves Areas (KSA) and Nature Conservation Areas (KPA); Ministry of Forestry Regulation No. 85 Year 2014 in conjunction with PermenLHK No. 44 Year 2017 concerning Procedures on Cooperation in Organizing KSA and KPA). Local wisdom may be closely related to biodiversity because biodiversity is embedded within the culture of a society and the wisdom of the community, especially in relation to endemic biodiversity. The ability of local wisdom to preserve high biodiversity turns out to be in harmony with sustainable ways of life. Local wisdom is still being practised up to date and remains inherently in the lives of the Adat (customary) community. In relation to biodiversity, local wisdom can be grouped into three categories: biodiversity custodian, biodiversity beneficiaries and biodiversity knowledge disseminator. The first group refers to the wisdom of the adat community in taking good care of ecosystems and biodiversity in their daily lives.
It is possible to utilize the local wisdom because there is still much local wisdom still practised by the community in the conservation and utilization of biodiversity until now. Various local wisdom that supports the preservation of environment and forest areas along with their biodiversity can be utilized to manage forest areas, especially adat forests. Local wisdom can also be utilized in the management of coastal areas and small islands. Adat law communities and traditional fishermen can be involved in strengthening the zoning plans for coastal areas and small islands with the government and business sector; the local community may take the initiative to propose zoning plans. The rights of the adat law communities to regulate marine areas which are managed for generations have also been embodied in the laws and regulations. The utilization of space and resources of coastal waters and small islands within the adat law area is authorized by the relevant local adat law community. Meanwhile, traditional fishermen and their fishing areas are recognized through the inclusion of traditional fishing areas as sub-zones in the zoning plans, providing them with complete legal protection. Conservation of marine resources for local communities such as sasi (oath) has proven to increase the production of targeted fish with low levels of exploitation while increasing recovery of fish stocks and income of the local people. Therefore, the use and development of local wisdom may be used to support the conservation and sustainable use of biological resources.