The 5th Biodiversity National Report is a report on Indonesia’s national implementation of the Convention on Biological Biodiversity articles and work programs. An overview on Status, Trend, and Threats of Biodiversity is presented in Chapter 1. In this Chapter, Indonesia’s biodiversity condition is reported. The documented species diversity comprised of 1,500 species of algae, 80,000 fungal species, 595 species of lichens, 2,197 fern species, and 30,000 – 40,000 of spermatophyte species, accounting for 15.5% to the world flora. Additionally, 8,157 fauna species of mammal, bird, reptile, fish and 1,900 butterfly species accounting for the 10% species on the earth have also been documented.
The number of species that utilized for food and agriculture has increased with respect to total species reported in the 4th Biodiversity National Report. Similar situation occurred in the number of species for animal farming. Under the limited resources to covers Indonesia’s 3.25 million km2 of water areas and over 2.55 million km2 of Economic Exclusive Zone with 80,791 km coastal line of total 7.81 million km2 of the Republic of Indonesia’s territory, the number of documented fauna reached 5,319 species. Documented data on mangrove plant, algae and sea grasses have shown 6,396 species. Of those 6,396 species, total of 1,077 algae and marine flora were found in Indonesia’s waters. The main threats to biodiversity are: (i) habitat change; (ii) influx of Invasive Alien Species; (iii) pollution; (iv) over exploitation; and (v) climate change. The threats must be eliminated through executable action plans and strategy.
Indonesia is in the process of updating Indonesia Biodiversity Strategic and Action Plan (IBSAP) 2015-2020. The description of IBSAP content is presented in Chapter II. Based on the 2012 review on IBSAP implementation, the National Development and Planning Agency (BAPPENAS) showed that at least eight components influenced biodiversity policy development and activity. Those components are: (i) inadequate local/provincial insight on the function of biodiversity; (ii) biodiversity issue has not yet become the main issue; (iii) insufficient political support; (iv) inadequate human capacity with biodiversity issue recognition; (v) lack of synergy of biodiversity programs; (vi) less-publicized biodiversity policy; (vii) the absence of monitoring and evaluation institution at local level; and (viii) lack of stakeholders participation. Progress towards Global Strategy for Plant Conservation Target achievement and other efforts of Indonesia for the implementation of IBSAP are correspondingly reported in this Chapter II.
Following the previous Chapters, Chapter III reported on the progress towards the achievement of 2011-2020 (Aichi Targets) Global Biodiversity Targets and the progress towards the achievement the MDGs targets relevant to biodiversity. Numerous efforts have been executed to accomplish Aichi Targets, amongst others was, updating IBSAP 2015-2020 for Target 2; identification of invasive alien species increased concurrently to the development of regulation and national action plan to achieve Target 9; anthropogenic pressure on coral reef showed the increasing number of coral reefs in good and fair conditions and the declined number of poor coral reef condition from 1993 to 2013 as the achievement of Target 10; Population of fourteen species of 25 endangered species prioritized to increase 3% by 2014 following Target 12; the raised number of local crop and cattle genetic resources to minimize genetic erosion and safeguarded genetic diversity as mandated in Target 13; the ratification of the Nagoya Protocol in 8 May 2013 was a significant milestone for Indonesia in achieving Target 16 as well as marked the implementation of Convention on Biological Diversity in Indonesia; the utilization of traditional knowledge, innovation and local and indigenous people practices relevant to conservation increased in line with biodiversity development for supporting cultural use, sustainable source of livelihood/income, local food security and medical treatment and financial resource effectively mobilized and incorporated into the ongoing development of updated IBSAP 2015-2020.
The achievement of Millennium Development Goals based on designated indicator reflected in a variety of results.Implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity in Indonesia requires support from various stakeholders; strengthening communication and coordination among stakeholders especially at local level; mechanism or regulation for ensuring the programs; contribution from sector action plan; upscale monitoring and integrated data and valuable information for developing policy as the foundation in the implementation of the Convention.